Chapter 3. MODERN HISTORY: 1485-1914

Table of Contents

THE AGE OF PERILOUS DISCOVERY
IN SEARCH OF WEALTH: THE LANDS OF SPICE AND GOLD
THE DARK ATLANTIC
A THREE YEARS' JOURNEY ROUND THE WORLD
SCHOLARS SAIL UNCHARTED SEAS
HOW THE RENAISSANCE LED TO THE REFORMATION
TOO MANY POPES WEAKEN "THE FAITH "
LUTHER GROPING IN SEARCH OF THE TRUTH
ENGLAND DEFIES THE POPE
ROME RALLIES HER FORCES: THE STRUGGLE FOR SOULS
TRYING TO DIVIDE POWER BETWEEN THE NATIONS
FLANDERS SCARRED WITH THE WARS OF SEVEN CENTURIES
"NOT PEACE, BUT A SWORD"
RELIGION AS A MASK FOR HATE AND GREED
SHAKESPEARE: MOUTHPIECE OF A TUMULTUOUS AGE
ELIZABETH, THE QUEEN WHO KNEW THE BETTER PART OF VALOUR
THE ROUTING OF THE SPANISH ARMADA
MONARCHIES AND PEOPLES
THE GREATEST STATESMEN OF THE AGE MAKE FRANCE SUPREME
THE MIDSUMMER OF MONARCHY
STRUGGLES THAT WERE STEPPING-STONES TO DEMOCRACY
GRUMBLING TAXPAYERS OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY
"GOOD KING CHARLES'S GOLDEN DAYS"
THE AGE OF REASON, BEAUTY, AND TASTE
THE BARGAIN BETWEEN CITIZEN AND RULER
THREE YOUNG CLERICS WHOSE ENTHUSIASM SHOCKED THE CHURCH
THE AUTUMN OF MONARCHY
ENLIGHTENED DESPOTS TAKE REFORM IN HAND
THE HARDEST WORKER AMONG MODERN KINGS
THE TSARS WHO BROUGHT CIVILISATION TO RUSSIA
THE BOON DENIED TO HAPLESS POLAND
THE RACE FOR EMPIRE
A "NEW FRANCE" ACROSS THE ATLANTIC
A " LAND OF SICKNESS AND SORROW "
THE LION'S SHARE FALLS TO BRITAIN
THE CLERK WHO LED AN ARMY TO VICTORY
AMERICA BEGINS TO SLIP AWAY FROM BRITAIN
THE LAST DAYS OF A BRITISH AMERICA
ENGLAND ATTACKED ON EVERY SIDE
COLONIES LIKE FRUIT THAT RIPENS FOR THE FALL
THE THIRTEEN STATES CARVE OUT THEIR DESTINIES
GOVERNMENT-MAKERS WHO MISTOOK THEIR PATTERN
REVOLUTION IN PEACE AND WAR
THE AGE OF IRON AND STEAM
SECURITY THAT MADE BRITAIN THE WORKSHOP OF THE WORLD
INVENTIONS TRANSFORMING THE FACE OF BRITAIN
THE GROWTH OF THE TOWNS EXPOSES WRETCHED LIVING CONDITIONS
RUMBLINGS OF REVOLUTION IN FRANCE
THE MEN WHO MADE THE FRENCH REVOLUTION
ROBESPIERRE: EVIL GENIUS OF THE TERROR
WHAT THE WORLD THOUGHT OF THE REVOLUTION
THE CONTROVERSY ROUND THE CHARACTER OF NAPOLEON
THE SPLENDOURS AND MISERIES OF NAPOLEON BONAPARTE
THE DESTROYERS OF MONARCHY ELECT A KING
HORRORS THAT MARRED THE NAVY'S GLORY
WAS NAPOLEON UNLUCKY AT WATERLOO?
RESTORATION OR RECONSTRUCTION?
AN EARLY ATTEMPT TO KEEP THE PEACE
THE FLAG AND THE VOTE
SOMETHING FOR WHICH A PEOPLE WILL DIE
CLASHES BETWEEN THE RULERS AND THE RULED
DISCORD IN THE CONCERT OF EUROPE
THE EARLY STRUGGLES OF BOURGEOIS LIBERALISM
THE TREATY THAT BROUGHT BELGIUM INTO BEING
PIONEERS OF SOCIALISM
1848: THE YEAR OF REVOLUTIONS
THE HABSBURGS LEARN TO "DIVIDE AND RULE "
FREEDOM SLOWLY BROADENS DOWN
THE UGLY SIDE OF PROGRESS
THE ENGLISH TRADER SELLS TO THE WORLD
NEW DESIRES GUIDE THE TREND OF POLITICS
MAKING A PLATFORM FOR THE PEOPLE
SOCIAL REFORM PROCEEDS APACE
BRITAIN'S INTERESTS OVERSEAS
MODERNISM FINDING A HOME IN ASIA
A NEW LIFE FOR THE ENGLISHMAN IN INDIA
A BACKWARD PEOPLE SUPREME IN CULTURE AND ART
AUSTRALASIA: FROM BUSHRANGER TO TEST MATCH DAYS
DUTCH AND ENGLISH CLASH IN AFRICA
THE MISTAKE ENGLAND MADE ABOUT IRELAND
STRUGGLES FOR NATIONAL UNITY
AN UNPRACTICAL LEADER WHO OVERTHREW KINGDOMS
THE POPE RETIRES FROM POLITICS
FRANCE UNDER NAPOLEON III.
BISMARCK: A MASTER OF FINESSE
ONE EMPIRE ENDS AND ANOTHER BEGINS
A COMMUNIST INTERREGNUM
HOW ENGLAND KEPT TURKEY'S EMPIRE ALIVE
1878-A LANDMARK IN THE EASTERN QUESTION
PROGRESS IMPEDED BY IGNORANCE AND SAVAGERY
AMERICA: THE FEUD BETWEEN NORTH AND SOUTH BEGINS
TARIFF AND SLAVERY ADD FUEL TO THE FLAME
THE TERRIBLE COST OF THE FOUR YEARS' WAR
ECHOES IN ENGLAND OF THE AMERICAN FEUD
ROMANCE REVIVED IN LIFE AND LETTERS
A THEORY THAT CAN BE HARNESSED TO MANY IDEALS
HOW THE SEEDS OF FASCISM WERE SOWN
PARLIAMENT MENACED BY IRISH UPHEAVAL
EXPLORATIONS IN THE FIELDS OF KNOWLEDGE
THE LITTLE RENAISSANCE OF ENGLISH EDUCATION

by T. G. Standing, M.A.(Oxow.), Former Exhibitioner of New College, Oxford

HUMAN history has, so far, been a continuous process , change has never ceased, and it is unwise to say, for instance: " In 1485 English mediaeval history ends and modern history begins." Still, between the middle of the fifteenth century and the middle of the sixteenth century (say 1453-1555) an epoch slowly passed away and a new one grew into its place. Spanish, Portuguese, and Italian sailors traced the coasts of Africa and a new continent, America, and traded with India and China. Books were printed in thousands where once they had been painfully copied in twos and threes. The art of warfare was complicated by grimy mechanics who operated tubular instruments from which missiles were shot with much risk to the gunner. North-Western Europe was filled with religious enthusiasts who claimed independence of the Pope and professed novel views of ritual and the way to salvation. A very large number of the monasteries which formerly had been local centres of cultured leisure, education, and charity, were quite destroyed and lay adventurers took their estates. Many laymen learnt more Latin than priests had formerly known: there were men who learnt a great deal of Greek. Law was modified by experts who considered the Roman code of Justinian to be the ideal legal system.

It was impossible for any European who could compare the two periods to doubt that his world in 1550 was a different place from the world of 1450, and on the whole more exciting. Men were beginning to believe in progress. That belief, among other things, differentiates us from our mediaeval ancestors.