THE CANDLEMAKER

Candlemakers possessing professional skill supplemented the efforts of the economic house-wife, one of whose duties in the days when wax and tallow furnished the domestic light was to mould the candles for household use. Rush-lights were an earlier form of such artificial lights -rushes dipped in fat and tallow. By easy stages these simple lights were improved, cotton wicks suspended in the candle mould which secured the solidified tallow with the wick inside affording a more even and better light than the earlier process. The Wax Chandlers Company became a chartered guild in the reign of Edward III, and as was customary in those days obtained control over the craft with the right of search to prevent candles of inferior quality being made and sold. These craftsmen plied their trade in Candlewick Street-now Cannon Street-in London. The craftsmen qualified for the true making of " torches, prickits and great candles," the Hall of the Guild being in Gresham

FIGS. 56, 57 AND 58.-SILVER TEA-POT AND TEA-CADDIES.18th CENTURY.

Fig. 5959.-SILVER CAKE-BASKET.

Figs 60, 61 AND 62 - SILVER SUGAR TONGS THREE DIFFERENT TYPES.

Street-the first hall built in 1493 was destroyed in the Great Fire. In course of time the art of candlemaking ceased to be the sole property of the Guild and many people in London and other towns practised the occupation. Candlemaking was at a later period a common village industry, supplementing the home-made candles then so very generally made. There are many old prints and some interesting traders' tokens bearing testimony to the common craft of the candlemaker and the number of tallow chandler's shops. In modern times, factory-made candles of wax, paraffin and other composite substances were introduced, and they have been burned in glass chandeliers, brackets and candelabra, suspended and upon the walls of palace and mansion, and in modest candlesticks of silver, brass, pewter and tin in the homes of the people.